Earliest Times to the Present, Vol. Overall, the immigrant populations of virtually all Spanish-speaking nations of the Western Hemisphere grew substantially in the decade between and With unemployment now a structural feature of the island economy, the first wave of Puerto Ricans began to leave for the mainland, searching either for work or after having been recruited to work in the agricultural industry. For the Bittersweet Harvest project, see www.
His major works include Walls and Mirrors: Latino population by , when they reached an aggregate population of nearly 1. Earliest Times to the Present, vol. Indeed, the mutual economic incentives for unsanctioned entry bolstered by ever more sophisticated and economically lucrative smuggling, communication, and document-forging networks increased so much in this period that it is estimated that at different times, the ratio of unauthorized workers to legally contracted braceros was at least two-to-one, and in some cases, was even higher in specific local labor markets. Still stinging from the humiliation suffered by Mexican nationals and their children during the repatriation campaigns of the previous decade, Mexican government officials were at first reluctant to enter into such an agreement, but after securing guarantees from U. Center for Immigration Studies, Aug. Drawn to the prospect of improving their material conditions in the U. Although both events have been touted as part of the wave of liberal reforms including the Civil Rights Act of and the Voting Rights Act of that characterized this tumultuous era, the end of the contract labor program and revamping of the U. Federal courts have thus far tended to enjoin or strike down such statutes as violations of federal prerogative in immigration matters, but the future in this arena of immigration and citizenship politics and jurisprudence remains uncertain. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute their endorsement by the U. For example, in , 25 percent of Cubans and Cuban Americans over age 25 had obtained at least a college degree compared to just In alone, states passed more than such laws, including measures requiring local law enforcement officials, teachers, social workers, health-care providers, private-sector employers, and others to verify the citizenship of any individual they encounter in their official duties or businesses—and make it a crime for non-citizens not to have documents verifying their legal status. Numbering fewer than 71, nationwide in , the Cuban immigrant population shot up to , by With citizen members of the "baby boom" generation entering retirement in ever-increasing numbers, demographers predict that pressure to recruit highly educated and highly skilled immigrants will continue to rise. Albert, "The Hispanic Population: Resource and Constraint," American Sociological Review 63, no. In the international arena, the deepening global debt crisis and austerity measures imposed on many Latin American countries over this same period by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund set the stage for even more drastic economic restructuring and displacement abroad. According to data released by U. This was seen in the sudden increase in the apprehension of unauthorized immigrants, which rose from a negligible number in , to more than 91, in , nearly , in , and to more than , by Center for Immigration Studies, April For an insightful case-study analysis of the structural replacement of domestic workers by the foreign-born in one key industry, see William Kandel and Emilio A. Immigration and Customs enforcement, deportations and other enforced departures rose from , in fiscal to nearly , in fiscal —and were on an even higher numerical pace though the first five months of fiscal Princeton University Press, In , the number of Mexican nationals living in the U. This ongoing restructuring was regionally and temporally uneven, but across the economy the general long term trend was toward a contraction of comparatively secure high-wage, high-benefit often union jobs in the manufacturing and industrial sectors and a corresponding growth of increasingly precarious low-wage, low benefit, often non-union jobs in the expanding service and informal sectors of a transformed economy.
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