Women using hormones were included, but their data were excluded from analyses reported here unless hormone therapy was included in the model being tested. In addition to the physical changes associated with the MT, the context in which sexual desire occurs is influential. Also in , women began contributing data in a health diary that included a symptom checklist as well as indicators of health behaviors and stress. Abstract Aims To describe levels of sexual desire across the menopausal transition MT and early postmenopause PM , including effects of age, MT-related factors, health, stress, symptoms hot flash, sleep, mood , and social opportunity factors. The number of women providing data and the number of observations for each of the stages were:
Women were eligible for participation if they had menstruated within the past 3 months before recruitment and had at least one ovary. Multilevel modeling using the R program was used to test factors related to sexual desire. To date, there is mixed evidence relating the menopausal transition MT to sexual desire. As seen in Table 1 , women who were included in these analyses compared with those who were ineligible were similar with respect to employment status, marital status, age, and education. They became ineligible once they attained 5 years PM or had a bilateral oophorectomy or induced menopause. In addition to the physical changes associated with the MT, the context in which sexual desire occurs is influential. The findings of these studies suggest that factors related to the MT may influence sexual desire. These findings are consistent with those from the large cross-sectional study, Women's International Study of Health and Sexuality WISHeS , in which women 50—70 years of age reported they were less distressed by their low sexual desire than were women 20—49 years of age. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Nancy Fugate Woods, R. Having a partner was associated with lower sexual desire. Having had surgery type not specified during the past year was associated with an increase in sexual desire, but experiencing psychological symptoms, smoking, and having a partner were associated with lower sexual desire. Data were obtained from 3 days of diary ratings from those closest to days 5, 6, and 7 of the menstrual cycle and coinciding with first morning voided urine specimens women provided 8—12 times per year for endocrine assays from late through and then quarterly for — Participants in early studies of sexuality and aging rarely attributed cessation of their sexual activity to a loss of desire or interest. Perceived life stress has the potential to distract women from focusing on sexual desire, and a woman's social roles and responsibilities may limit her opportunity to engage with a partner in a situation conducive to sexual expression. The purposes of this study were to: Conclusions Clinicians working with women traversing the MT should be aware that promoting healthy sexual functioning among midlife women requires consideration of their changing biology as well as ongoing life challenges. Eligible women described themselves as follows: The number of women providing data and the number of observations for each of the stages were: Also in , women began contributing data in a health diary that included a symptom checklist as well as indicators of health behaviors and stress. Women whose data were available for analysis and were eligible for inclusion were midlife women with a mean age of Although postmenopausal women did note a lower level of interest in sex, multiple factors were involved, including death of a spouse, illness of a spouse, or their spouse's inability to perform sexual functions. Women using hormones were included, but their data were excluded from analyses reported here unless hormone therapy was included in the model being tested. They differed significantly by income and ethnicity: Recently published evidence suggests that endocrine markers of the MT, including estradiol E2 and testosterone T , and use of exogenous hormone therapy may influence sexual desire. Women entered the cohort between and early when most were not yet in the MT or were in the early stages of the transition to menopause.
Video about menopause with subsequent decreased sex drive:
Sex Drive and Menopause
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