The endocrine system is made up of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid, parathyroid gland, adrenal gland, pancreatic islet cells also known as islets of Langerhans and the ovaries or testicles. Artificial or synthetic hormones can be made in the lab. Hypothalamus The hypothalamus is a small structure in the middle of the brain below the thalamus.
Fibres exiting the spinal cord from the dorsal and ventral horns join in paired tracts to form the spinal nerves. Structure and function of the spine The spine is made up of 26 bones divided into 5 sections. Coccyx tail bone — This is a small, thin section of fused vertebrae at the end of the spine. At the lumbar region, the spinal cord branches into a group of spinal nerves that exit the lumbar vertebrae and sacrum. The gray matter contains cell bodies, unmyelinated motor-neuron fibres, and interneurons connecting the two sides of the cord. These bones surround and protect the spinal cord. Some doctors may only recommend surgery for patients with a single metastatic tumor and no evidence of cancer growing at another site. Spinal nerves Pairs of spinal nerves exit the vertebrae along the length of the spinal cord. Natural hormones are produced by glands. The white matter is grouped into discrete sectors called funiculi. Information travels up the ascending tracts of neurons and is sorted by the brain. One pair of nerves starts in specialized cells in the roof of the nose and another pair starts in the retina of the eye. This includes 24 vertebrae divided into cervical, thoracic and lumbar regions , the sacrum and the coccyx. The spinal nerves are numbered after nearby vertebrae. Sacrum — This is a large section of fused vertebrae at the base of the spine. The CSF also carries nutrients in the blood to and removes waste products from the brain. It plays a part in controlling body temperature, hormone secretion, blood pressure, emotions, appetite and sleep patterns. Thoracic region — These are 12 vertebrae that run from the shoulders to the middle of the back. Like the brain, the spinal cord is covered by three connective-tissue envelopes called the meninges. It circulates through chambers called ventricles and over the surface of the brain and spinal cord. Pineal gland The pineal gland is a very small gland in the third ventricle of the brain. In the brain, the endothelial cells are packed tightly together so substances cannot pass out of the bloodstream into the brain. It acts as a relay station for almost all information that comes and goes between the brain and the rest of the nervous system in the body. It receives messages from the hypothalamus and releases hormones that control the thyroid and adrenal gland, as well as growth and physical and sexual development. A biopsy , a surgical procedure in which a sample of tissue is taken from a suspected tumor, helps doctors diagnose the type of tumor. See Article History Spinal cord, major nerve tract of vertebrates, extending from the base of the brain through the canal of the spinal column. Pituitary gland The pituitary gland is a small, pea-sized organ in the centre of the brain.
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