Inclusion criteria consisted of: Method To be included in the analyses, each study was required to meet specific inclusion criteria. Why do Indians so hate their own colour? Given this inordinate public health impact, there is continued impetus to understand comprehensively the various pathways to adolescent pregnancy and motherhood in order for intervention and prevention programs to be at maximum efficacy. All correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Jennie G.
Although these two outcomes are highly distinctive and each is associated with differing long-term sequelae for women, we found it very difficult to focus exclusively on one or the other, given that many of the study designs and operational definitions made it difficult to disaggregate the two outcomes. All correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Jennie G. Bleaching backlash The brand Clean and Dry took bleaching to new levels in , when it began heavily advertising for a new wash to lighten the vagina. Younger generations are now starting to push back. The search yielded 15 published articles and, based on their review, Blinn-Pike et al. For permissions, please e-mail: CSA was defined per respective study operational definition criteria and thus is broadly defined to include unwanted sexual experiences ranging from overt verbal advances, exposure to sexual media, unwanted touching, or penetration. Indian women, like all women, come in various shapes, sizes and, yes, colours. Finally, we included studies that have been published subsequent to the original review of Blinn-Pike et al. In a comprehensive literature review, Blinn-Pike et al. Results CSA significantly increased the odds of experiencing an adolescent pregnancy by 2. This range of sexual abuse constitutes a wide spectrum of relatively mild to more severe forms; however, most studies included cases at varying points along this continuum and there were no studies that focused solely on the mild or severe ends. Addressing conditions associated with CSA might impact the overall adolescent pregnancy rate. This time, women had had enough. There are several plausible explanations for the persisting high rates of adolescent pregnancy and motherhood, such as additional, unidentified risk factors explaining a large proportion of adolescents who become pregnant. Henceforth, the term adolescent pregnancy is used to describe the outcome of interest with full acknowledgement that this term is inclusive of both adolescent pregnancy and adolescent motherhood. Hence, this broad definition of CSA was essentially unavoidable and was utilized because it reflects the nature of the majority of definitions that currently comprise the CSA literature facilitating the inclusion of as many relevant studies as possible. Method To be included in the analyses, each study was required to meet specific inclusion criteria. Putnam , MS2 Jennie G. Yet, even with this substantial decline, rates of adolescent pregnancy and motherhood in the United States are still among the highest in industrialized nations, with 7. It should be noted that, by and large, the adolescent pregnancy literature [including the review of Blinn-Pike et al. A supplemental analysis suggested that 4. A comprehensive picture of adolescent pregnancy risk factors includes a cognitive or attitudinal vulnerabilities such as positive or ambivalent attitudes toward sex and childbearing, perceived invulnerability to pregnancy, a lack of contraception knowledge, perceived parental approval of birth control use, and low educational and occupational expectations Anda et al. Despite intervention efforts addressing these identified risk factors, adolescent pregnancy continues at a high rate and remains a significant social concern. These young women are willing to overlook the after-effects of bleaching , and the advent of online sales allows them to use these products in the privacy of their own homes. Our primary meta-analysis relied on well-designed studies that included adequate comparison groups in order to evaluate stringently the relationship between CSA and rates of adolescent pregnancy in direct comparison to non-abused adolescent peers. One area that has received considerable attention is whether individuals who experienced childhood maltreatment sexual, physical, and emotional abuse show higher rates of adolescent pregnancy and motherhood in comparison to their non-maltreated counterparts.
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